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Simulation
Use the Simulation tool to model probabilistic situations and analyze the
results in tables, graphs, or data sheets.

Basics
Create simulations that model simple situations such as flipping a coin,
rolling a die, drawing a card, or generating a random integer. Summarize
the results in table form or in histograms. Additionally, view basic
statistics or analyze the results in Data Analysis.
Getting Started
 Build a simulation .
 Run a simulation .
 View and analyze results within Simulation or
Data Analysis.

Build a Simulation
Use the Options menu or toolbar icons to create events and customize simulations
with computations. Choose to build a Simple/Common
Event or Distribution
Event, create a Custom Event,
relate events by Computations,
model Meta Events, and view a Sample
Simulation.
 Simple/Common Events: Click on a toolbar icon (shown
below) or its corresponding entry in the Build  Common Events
menu or choose from Build  Other Simple Events to add a simple
event to the simulation. Each time a simple event is chosen it will be added
to the simulation.

Pick a card from 52card deck 

Roll a 10sided die 

Flip a 2sided coin 

Roll a 20sided die 

Roll a 4sided die 

Generate a random digit 

Roll a 6sided die 

Generate a random integer from a to b. 

Roll an 8sided die 


 Distribution Events:
 Choose Build  Distribution  Random Binomial
to build a binomial situation with n=100 and p=0.5. To make changes to
these default values, doubleclick near the text beginning with "Binomial." Type
a value into either text box then press Enter to change the value of n (number
of trials) or p (probability of success).
 Choose Build  Distribution  Random Normal to
build a normal distribution event with mean=0 and std dev=1.0. To make
changes to these default values, doubleclick near the text beginning
with "Normal." Type a value into either text box then press
Enter to change the value of the mean or standard deviation.
 Custom Events: Choose Build  Create Custom
Event and doubleclick the "unnamed" event in the simulation window.
Name the event and specify the desired outcomes. Enter a frequency or weight
for each outcome. Close the window when finished.
 Choose Edit  Add Outcome or Edit  Delete Outcome
to create more or fewer outcomes.
 Choose Edit  Make Equally Likely to give all outcomes the
same frequency or weight.
 Computations: To relate events by a computation
first build them so they are added to the simulation model. Next, hold down
the shift key as you click to and select the desired events. Choose a computation
from the Build menu such as Add, Subtract, Equal, or Combine, or from the
Additional Computations entry to relate the selected events.
Example 1. Choose then then .
Click on and
hold down shift to select ,
then choose Build  (Computations) Add. A new event will be created
that will read + (8sided
Die + 4sided Die). The outcome for this combined event will add the value
of the 8sided Die to the value of the 4sided Die for each run of the
simulation.
Example 2. Choose three
times. Hold down the Shift key as you click on each of the digit icons
()
within the model window. With this selection highlighted, choose Build  Additional
Computations  Function. A separate Function Editor window will
open describing how each of the selected events are coded (e.g., a:Digit,
b:Digit, c:Digit). To relate these events by a function that computes their
mean, type (a+b+c)/3 and press Enter (or type average(a,b,c)). A new event
that relates the three random digits is listed in the simulation model.
Expand or collapse the view (click on the small triangle to the left of
the function) to determine which results are displayed in the table and
graph.
 Meta Events: To create a Meta Event, first build
a simple or custom event so that
it is added to the simulation model. Click on the desired event to select
it. With the event selected, choose from Build  Meta Events 
Accumulate Total, Proportion of, Count Till See, or Count # of.
Note: Only one Meta Event may be chosen at a time.
Example. Choose ,
then Build  (Meta Events) Count Till See. Doubleclick on the
outcome that you are waiting for (this is simulating a waitingtime situation).
If you would like to wait for multiple outcomes from one simulation, hold
down the Command key and select multiple outcomes.
 Sample Simulations: View a preset simulation by
selecting it from the Sample Simulations menu.
Note: When an option from the Sample Simulations menu is chosen
it will replace any current simulations. Open a new Simulation window to
model multiple situations as separate simulations.
Run a Simulation
After setting up a simulation, use the Simulation menu or their corresponding
toolbar buttons to run it.
 Choose to start and
stop running
the simulation.
 To set the speed of the simulation, select
Step, Slow, Medium, Fast, or Fastest in the Simulation menu. Alternatively,
the simulation will run one pace faster with each click of the button.
Note: If the speed is set at a Step pace, click the Go button
for each new run.
 Choose to reset or
clear all performed runs of the simulation, keeping the same set up or build.
Note: To clear the build of the simulation choose the button
or choose Tool  New.
 Use the Conduct button to do a specified
number of runs at once. Each click of the Conduct button will add the specified
amount to the total number of performed runs.
Note: The Conduct button does not have an effect on the controls
that start, stop, and determine the speed of the runs.
 Choose Edit  Undo to
reverse the last action that was performed.
View & Analyze Results
Once your simulation has finished running view or analyze the
results.
Viewing Styles and Options
Select (or deselect) entries of the View menu to customize what and how the
results of a simulation are shown.
 Choose View  Stacked
to display the results in separate tabs. Choose View  Tiled to
display results in one window.
 From
the View menu, choose from three components of a simulation to view: the
Model or build of the simulation, a Table of Outcomes, and a Histogram of
results.
Note: A simulation must be built prior to running it (and both
must be done before results will be recorded in the table or graph).
 When
a histogram plot is shown, use the View menu to show (or hide): Relative
Frequencies (or frequencies), Labels on histogram bars, or a Grid.
Note: Be sure Graph is selected (checked) within the View menu
for these settings to be applied.
Analyze Results
 Choose Edit  Basic Statistics to view
the available summary statistics of the simulation outcome(s) in a separate
window. These summary statistics include the fivenumber summary, mean, sample
standard deviation, and sample variance.
 Choose Edit  Analyze Results to view
the outcome(s) of the simulation within a Data Analysis data sheet.
Save and Record Simulations
The Tool menu provides options for creating new simulations (),
opening saved simulations (),
printing (),
and saving ().
See also Save & Print.