1 
Interpreting Categorical Data 
Interpreting
Categorical Data develops student understanding
of twoway frequency tables, conditional probability and
independence, and using data from a randomized experiment
to compare two treatments. 
Topics include twoway
tables, graphical representations, comparison of proportions
including absolute risk reduction and relative risk, characteristics
and terminology of welldesigned experiments, expected frequency,
chisquare test of homogeneity, statistical significance. 

2 
Functions Modeling Change 
Functions
Modeling Change extends student understanding of
linear, exponential, quadratic, power, circular, and logarithmic
functions to model quantitative relationships and data
patterns whose graphs are transformations of basic patterns. 
Topics include linear,
exponential, quadratic, power, circular, and base10 logarithmic
functions; mathematical modeling; translation, reflection,
stretching, and compressing of graphs with connections to
symbolic forms of corresponding function rules. 

3 
Counting Methods 
Counting Methods extends
student ability to count systematically and solve enumeration
problems using permutations and combinations. 
Topics include systematic
listing and counting, counting trees, the Multiplication
Principle of Counting, Addition Principle of Counting, combinations,
permutations, selections with repetition; the binomial theorem,
Pascal's triangle, combinatorial reasoning; and the general
multiplication rule for probability. 

4 
Mathematics of Financial DecisionMaking 
Mathematics
of Financial DecisionMaking extends student facility
with the use of linear, exponential, and logarithmic functions,
expressions, and equations in representing and reasoning
about quantitative relationships, especially those involving
financial mathematical models. 
Topics include forms
of investment, simple and compound interest, future value
of an increasing annuity, comparing investment options, continuous
compounding and natural logarithms; amortization of loans
and mortgages, present value of a decreasing annuity, and
comparing auto loan and lease options. 


5 
Binomial Distributions and Statistical
Inference 
Binomial Distributions
and Statistical Inference develops student understanding
of the rules of probability; binomial distributions; expected
value; testing a model; simulation; making inferences about
the population based on a random sample; margin of error;
and comparison of sample surveys, experiments, and observational
studies and how randomization relates to each. 
Topics include review
of basic rules and vocabulary of probability (addition and
multiplication rules, independent events, mutually exclusive
events); binomial probability formula; expected value; statistical
significance and Pvalue; design of sample surveys
including random sampling and stratified random sampling;
response bias; sample selection bias; sampling distribution;
variability in sampling and sampling error; margin of error;
and confidence interval. 

6 
Informatics 
Informatics develops
student understanding of the mathematical concepts and methods
related to information processing, particularly on the Internet,
focusing on the key issues of access, security, accuracy,
and efficiency. 
Topics include elementary
set theory and logic; modular arithmetic and number theory;
secret codes, symmetrickey and publickey cryptosystems;
errordetecting codes (including ZIP, UPC, and ISBN) and
errorcorrecting codes (including Hamming distance); and
trees and Huffman coding. 

7 
Spatial Visualization and Representations 
Spatial Visualization
and Representations extends student ability to visualize
and represent threedimensional shapes using contour diagrams,
cross sections, and relief maps; to use coordinate methods
for representing and analyzing threedimensional shapes
and their properties; and to use graphical and algebraic
reasoning to solve systems of linear equations and inequalities
in three variables and linear programming problems. 
Topics include using
contours to represent threedimensional surfaces and developing
contour maps from data; sketching surfaces from sets of cross
sections; threedimensional rectangular coordinate system;
sketching planes using traces, intercepts, and cross sections
derived from algebraic representations; systems of linear
equations and inequalities in three variables; and linear
programming. 

8 
Mathematics of Democratic DecisionMaking 
Mathematics
of Democratic DecisionMaking develops student understanding
of the mathematical concepts and methods useful in making
decisions in a democratic society, as related to voting
and fair division. 
Topics include preferential
voting and associated voteanalysis methods such as majority,
plurality, runoff, pointsforpreferences (Borda method),
pairwisecomparison (Condorcet method), and Arrow's theorem;
weighted voting, including weight and power of a vote and
the Banzhaf power index; and fair division techniques, including
apportionment methods. 

